Azad University of North Khorasan in Iran

I try to translate from the Persian dialect it is difficult but I ask for your understanding of any mistakes.
So see.

Use of apple vinegar to treat Nosema ceranae infection in bee.

In the last four to five years, I only work for the safety of bees from diseases. The purpose is to address pathogens. We have a very interesting result. As I deal with bee diseases, I see this was what we wanted.

Antibiotics have been used for many years and I think they need to stop.

– You mean fumageline, this medicine is no longer available on the market. Why has his production stopped in the country?

– Yes, this drug is forbidden in Europe because it is suspected of carcinogenicity.
We replaced it in Iran with vinegar apple tree because it fully responded to Nosema.

– How much apple vinegar do i need to use?

– Usually 35 apple vinegar and 65 syrup 1/1 or 40 apple vinegar and 60 syrup 1 to 1 ratio of sugar with water, and from this mixture to give a cup to each colony.

– Is it as effective as fumageline?

– Yes!

In the apple tree we find substances such as acetic acid, malic acid, potassium, magnesium, sulfur, phosphorus, calcium, copper, iron, fluoride and vitamins, as well as A, B (B1, B2, B6) other ingredients such as antioxidants and preservatives and antifungals (due to the presence of tannic acid and propionic acid). The pH of the apple vine is between four parts, which is a relatively strong acid.

Important: In this factory-made apple-vinegar the pharmaceutical properties are not the same because it is made and from other materials of acid is different and the concentrations in the above substances are different and do not work well in the treatment of bees.

What I said to you about its beneficial properties only concerns the natural apple vinegar.

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